STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH SENTENCE

Structural Analysis of the English Sentence

What makes a group of words a meaningful structure which conveys an intended message is the arrangement of the constituents with respect to their syntactic positions in the structure in accordance with the roles they play. These roles refer to functions such as “subject”, “object”, “predicator”, “modifier” “linker”, etc. In addition to the function that it bears, each constituent has some individual characteristics which it shares with other units of the same kind. This refers to its category (which is identified on the basis of the word class membership of at least one of its constituent words) such as “noun phrase”, “adjective phrase”, “conjunction”, “quantifier”, etc.
To understand how something works, we generally try to dissect it into its components to see how they behave, what their functions are, and what type of interconnections or relationships there are among them. This process is simply called “analyzing something”.
Following the approach suggested by Flor Aarts and Jan Aarts in 1982, this book suggests a multi-dimensional sentence analysis which includes both sentence functions and categories in the same tree diagram.
For this reason, this book is not a general language learning book, and the main aim is to provide English teachers with a set of reliable and objective criteria that can be used for the evaluation of various structural units from the viewpoint of their correctness.

COVER

CONTENTS

FOREWORD

INTRODUCTION

1-MORPHEMES: BUILDING BLOCKS OF WRITTEN WORDS
1. Classification of Morphemes
1.1. Lexical and Functional Morphemes
1.2. Derivational – Inflectional Morphemes
1.3. Free – Bound Morphemes
2. More on Morphemes

2-WORDS
1. Classification of Words
1.1. Lexical – Functional Words
1.2. Open Class – Closed Class Words

3-IDENTIFYING THE CLASSES OF WORDS

4-NOUNS
1. Semantic Properties of Nouns
2. Morphological Properties of Nouns
3. Syntactic Properties of Nouns

5-ADJECTIVES 
1. Semantic Properties of Adjectives
2. Morphological Properties of Adjectives
3. Syntactic Properties of Adjectives
3.1. Attributive Adjectives
3.2. Predicative Adjectives
3.3. Attributive-Only And Predicative-Only Adjectives
3.3.1. Attributive-Only Adjectives
3.3.2 Predicative Only Adjectives

6-ADVERBS
1. Semantic Properties of Adverbs
2. Morphological Properties of Adverbs
3. Syntactic Properties of Adverbs
3.1. A Few Words about the Adverb “NOT”

7-VERBS
1. Semantic Properties of Verbs
2. Morphological Properties of Verbs
3. Syntactic Properties of Verbs
3.1. Functional Classification of Verbs
3.1.1. Lexical Verbs
3.1.2. Auxiliary Verbs
3.1.3. Lexical Verbs vs. Auxiliary Verbs
3.1.4. Lexical or Auxiliary: Semi-Auxiliary Verbs
3.1.5. Types of Auxiliary Verbs
3.1.5.1 Modal Auxiliary Verbs
3.1.5.2. Primary Auxiliary Verbs
3.1.5.3. Functions of the Primary Auxiliary Verbs

8-PREPOSITIONS
1. Semantic Properties of Prepositions
2. Morphological Properties of Prepositions
3. Syntactic Properties of Prepositions
4. An Exceptional Class of Word: Postpositions

9-CONJUNCTIONS
1. Semantic Properties of Conjunctions
2. Morphological Properties of Conjunctions
3. Syntactic Properties of Conjunctions
3.1 Coordination and Coordinators
3.2. Subordination and Subordinators
3.3. Rankshift

10-PRONOUNS
1. Semantic Properties of Pronouns
2. Morphological Properties of Pronouns
3. Functional Classification of Pronouns
3.1. Self-Pronouns
3.2. Demonstrative Pronouns
3.3. Possessive Pronouns
3.4. Relative Pronouns
3.5. Interrogative Pronouns
3.6. Reciprocal Pronouns
3.7. Indefinite Pronouns

11-ARTICLES
1. Semantic Properties of Articles
2. Morphological Properties of Articles
3. Syntactic Properties of Articles

12-NUMERALS
1. Semantic Properties of Numerals
2. Morphological Properties of Numerals
3. Syntactic Properties of Numerals

13-QUANTIFIERS
1. Semantic Properties of Quantifiers
2. Morphological Properties of Quantifiers
3. Syntactic Properties of Quantifiers

14-FORMATION OF A SENTENCE
1. The Primitive Form of A Sentence
2. Formation of A Sentence in The Human Mind
3. Roots of Basic Kernel Sentence Patterns
4. Basic Patterns of Kernel Sentences

15-SEMANTIC ROLES
1. Agent
2. Experiencer
3. Cause
4. Possessor/Container
5. Patient
6. Theme
7. Stimulus
8. Instrument
9. Recipient
10. Beneficiary
11. Attribute
12. Identifier/Carrier
13. Measure
14. Other Semantic Roles
14.1. Location
14.2. Time
14.3. Manner
14.4. Goal
14.5. Origin
15. Relations Between Roles and Sentence Functions
16. A Meta-Role

16-BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS: VERBS AND COMPLEMENTS
1. Intransitive Verbs and Relevant Sentence Pattern
1.1. Some Other Issues
1.2. The Sentence Pattern with Intransitive Verbs
2. Mono-Transitive Verbs and Relevant Sentence Pattern
2.1. Semantic Criteria for Direct Object
2.2. Syntactic Criteria for Direct Object
2.3. Some Other Issues
2.4. The Sentence Pattern with Mono-Transitive Verbs
3. Linking Verbs (Copulas) and Relevant Sentence Pattern
3.1. Semantic Criteria for Subject Attribute
3.2. Syntactic Criteria for Subject Attribute
3.3. The Sentence Pattern with Linking Verbs (Copulas)
4. Non-Transitive Complement Verbs and Relevant Sentence Pattern
4.1. Semantic Criteria for Predicator Complement
4.2. Syntactic Criteria for Predicator Complement
4.3. The Sentence Pattern with Non-Transitive Complement Verbs
5. Verbs with Two Obligatory Complements
6. Ditransitive Verbs And Relevant Sentence Patterns
6.1. Semantic Criteria for Indirect Object
6.2. Syntactic Criteria for Indirect Object
6.3. Semantic Criteria for Benefactive Object
6.4. Syntactic Criteria for Benefactive Object
6.5. The Sentence Patterns With Ditransitive Verbs
7. Complex Transitive Verbs and Relevant Sentence Pattern
7.1. Semantic Criteria for Object Attribute
7.2. Syntactic Criteria for Object Attribute
7.3. The Sentence Patterns with Complex Transitive Verbs
8. Predicator Complement Transitive Verbs and Relevant Sentence Pattern
8.1. Semantic Criteria For Predicator Complement
8.2. Syntactic Criteria For Predicator Complement
8.3. The Sentence Patterns with Complex Transitive Verbs
9. A Flowchart to Identify the Complement Types of the Predicator

17-AN OVERVIEW OF THE SENTENCE FUNCTIONS
1. Subject
1.1. Position
1.2. Concord
1.3. Passivization
1.4. Repetition in Tag Questions
2. Predicator
3. Direct Object
4. Subject Attribute
5. Predicator Complement (As Single Complement)
6. Indirect Object
7. Benefactive Object
8. Object Attribute
9. Predicator Complement (As Companion Complement)
10. Adverbial
10.1. Optionality of Adverbials
10.2. Mobility of Adverbials
11. Summary of the Sentence Patterns

18-FUNCTIONS AND CATEGORIES
1. Functions
2. Categories
3. Functions Versus Categories
4. Two Dimensions: Functional and Categorical Representations
5. Three-Dimensional Analysis

19-INTRODUCTION TO THE PHRASE STRUCTURE
1. Identifying Five Phrase Types
1.1. Verb Phrase
1.2. Prepositional Phrase
1.3. Noun, Adjective, and Adverb Phrases

20-TYPES OF PHRASES AND PHRASE-INTERNAL FUNCTIONS
1. Noun Phrase
1.1. Phrase-Internal Functions of Noun Phrases
1.1.1. Head
1.1.2. Determiner
1.1.3. Modifier
1.1.3.1. Descriptive Modifiers
1.1.3.2. Classifying Modifiers
1.1.3.3. Premodifiers
1.1.3.4. Postmodifiers
1.1.3.5. Discontinuous Modifiers
1.2. Typical Structure of the Noun Phrase
2. Adjective Phrase
2.1. Phrase-Internal Functions of Adjective Phrases
2.1.1. Head
2.1.2. Modifier
2.1.2.1. Premodifiers
2.1.2.2. Postmodifiers
2.1.2.3. Discontinuous Modifiers
2.2. Typical Structure of the Adjective Phrase
3. Adverb Phrase
3.1. Phrase-Internal Functions of Adverb Phrases
3.1.1. Head
3.1.2. Modifier
3.1.2.1. Premodifiers
3.1.2.2. Postmodifiers
3.1.2.3. Discontinuous Modifiers
3.2. Typical Structure of the Adverb Phrase
4. Prepositional Phrase
4.1. Phrase-Internal Functions of Prepositional Phrases
4.1.1. Prepositional
4.1.2. Prepositional Complement
4.2. Typical Structure of the Prepositional Phrase
5. Verb Phrase

21-INDICATORS OF THE VERB PHRASE
1. Mood
1.1. Indicative Mood
1.2. Imperative Mood
1.3. Subjunctive Mood
2. Modality
3. Tense
4. Aspect
4.1. Perfective Aspect
4.2. Progressive Aspect
5. Voice
5.1. Active Voice
5.2. Passive Voice
5.3. Middle Voice
6. The Number of Tenses in English

22-INTRODUCTION TO THE CLAUSE STRUCTURE
1. Definition of Clause
2. Various Clauses
3. Clause or Sentence

23-TYPES OF CLAUSES
1. Clause Types According to their Structures
1.1. Finite Clauses
1.2. Non-Finite Clauses
1.3. Verbless Clauses
2. Clause Types According to their Functions
2.1. Clauses as Sentence Functions
2.2. Clauses with Categorical References
2.3. Clauses as Phrase-Internal Functions
2.3.1. Relative Clauses
2.3.2. Appositive Clauses
2.3.3. Clauses Introduced by Temporal Conjunctions

24-INTRODUCTION TO THE TREE DIAGRAM
1- Some Details about Tree Diagrams
1.1. Discontinuous Structures
1.2. Multiple Realizations
1.3. Determinative Groups
1.4. Multi-Word Realizations
1.5. Coordination and Subordination
2. Notations Used in Tree Diagrams
2.1. Sentence / Clause Functions
2.2. Other Functions
2.3. Sentence / Clause Categories (Realizations)
2.4. Phrase Categories (Realizations)
2.5. Other Categories (Realizations)
2.6. Phrase-Internal Functions
2.7. Phrase-Internal Categories (Realizations)

25-NOUN PHRASE: FUNCTIONS AND REALIZATIONS
1. Realizations of the Head Function
1.1. Nouns
1.2. Pronouns
1.3. Adjectives in Generic Reference
1.4. Numerals
1.5. Local Genitive
2. Realizations of the Determiner Function
2.1. Articles
2.2. Possessive Pronouns
2.3. Demonstrative Pronouns
2.4. Numerals
2.5. Quantifiers
3. Realizations of the Premodifier Function
3.1. Adjectives
3.2. Nouns
3.3. Classifying Genitive
3.4. Adverbs
4. Realizations of the Postmodifier Function
4.1. Adjectives
4.2. Adverbs
4.3. Prepositional Phrases
4.4. Noun Phrases
4.5. Relative Clauses
4.6. Appositive Clauses
4.7. Clauses Introduced by Temporal Conjunctions
5. Realizations of the Discontinuous Modifier Function
5.1. Adjectives Postmodified by Prepositional Phrases
5.2. Adjectives Postmodified by Non-Finite Clauses
5.3. Comparative Adjectives Postmodified by Comparative Clauses
5.4. Comparative Adjectives Postmodified by Prepositional Phrases
5.5. Comparative Adjectives Postmodified by Comparative Clauses
5.6. Intensified Adjectives Postmodified by Finite Clauses
5.7. Intensified Adjectives Postmodified by Non-Finite Clauses

26-ADJECTIVE PHRASE: FUNCTIONS AND REALIZATIONS
1. Realizations of the Head Function
2. Realizations of the Premodifier Function
3. Realizations of the Postmodifier Function
3.1. Adverb “ENOUGH”
3.2. Prepositional Phrases
3.3. Finite Clauses
3.4. Non-Finite Clauses
3.4.1. “to” Infinitive Clauses Including an Interrogative Pronoun
3.4.2. “to” Infinitive Clauses with Overt Subject
3.4.3. “-ing” Participle Clauses
4. Realizations of the Discontinuous Modifier Function
4.1. Intensifying Adverb (SO) Postmodified by Finite Clauses
4.2. Intensifying Adverb (SO) Postmodified by Non-Finite Clauses
4.3. Comparative Adverb (AS) Postmodified by Finite Comparative Clauses
4.4. Comparative Adverb (AS) Postmodified by Prepositional Phrases
4.5. Comparative Adverb (MORE) Postmodified by Finite Clauses
4.6. Comparative Adverb (MORE) Postmodified by Prepositional Phrases
4.7. Intensifying Adverb (TOO) Postmodified by Non-Finite Clauses

27-ADVERB PHRASE: FUNCTIONS AND REALIZATIONS
1. Realizations of the Head Function
2. Realizations of the Premodifier Function
3. Realizations of the Postmodifier Function
3.1. Adverb “ENOUGH”
3.2. Finite Clauses Following an Adverb in Comparative Form
3.3. Prepositional Phrases Following an Adverb in Comparative Form
4. Realizations of the Discontinuous Modifier Function
4.1. Intensifying Adverb (SO) Postmodified by a Finite Clause
4.2. Intensifying Adverb (SO) Postmodified by a Non-Finite Clause
4.3. Comparative Adverb (AS) Postmodified by a Finite Comparative Clause
4.4. Comparative Adverb (AS) Postmodified by a Prepositional Phrase
4.5. Comparative Adverb (MORE/LESS) Postmodified by a Finite Comparative Clause
4.6. Comparative Adverb (MORE/LESS) Postmodified by a Prepositional Phrase
4.7. Intensifying Adverb (TOO) Postmodified by a Finite Clause

28-PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: FUNCTIONS AND REALIZATIONS
1. Realization of the Prepositional Function
2. Realizations of the Prepositional Complement Function
2.1. Nouns
2.2. Finite Clauses
2.3. Non-Finite Clauses
2.4. Prepositional Phrases
2.5. Adverbs
3. An Exceptional Phrase-Internal Function in the Prepositional Phrase

29-REALIZATIONS OF SENTENCE FUNCTIONS
1. Multiple Realization of Subject
2. Multiple Realization of Predicator
3. Multiple Realization of Subject Attribute
4. Multiple Realization of Direct Object
5. Multiple Realization of Object Attribute
6. Multiple Realization of Adverbial

30-REALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT FUNCTION
1. Noun Phrases
2. Finite Clauses
3. Non-Finite Clauses
4. Anticipatory “It” + “Finite Clause”
5. Anticipatory “It” + “Non-Finite Clause”
6. Existential “There”
7. Prepositional Phrases

31-REALIZATION OF THE DIRECT OBJECT FUNCTION
1. Noun Phrases
2. Finite Clauses
3. Non-Finite Clauses
4. Anticipatory “It” + “Finite Clause”
5. Anticipatory “It” + “Non-Finite Clause”

32-REALIZATION OF THE INDIRECT OBJECT FUNCTION
1. Noun Phrases
2. Finite Clauses

33-REALIZATION OF THE BENEFACTIVE OBJECT FUNCTION
1. Noun Phrases
2. Finite Clauses

34-REALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT ATTRIBUTE FUNCTION
1. Noun Phrases
2. Adjective Phrases
3. Prepositional Phrases
4. Finite Clauses
5. Non-Finite Clauses
6. Adverbs

35-REALIZATION OF THE OBJECT ATTRIBUTE FUNCTION
1. Noun Phrases
2. Adjective Phrases
3. Prepositional Phrases
4. Finite Clauses
5. Non-Finite Clauses

36-REALIZATION OF THE PREDICATOR COMPLEMENT FUNCTION
1. Noun Phrases
2. Prepositional Phrases
3. Finite Clauses
4. Non-Finite Clauses

37-REALIZATION OF THE ADVERBIAL FUNCTION
1. Adverb Phrases
2. Prepositional Phrases
3. Noun Phrases
4. Finite Clauses
5. Non-Finite Clauses
6. Verbless Clauses

REFERENCES

INDEX

If you would like to have a printed version click HERE and send your request.